English in India has had an extended and elite colonial history. It was the dominant language of governance in the 19th and 20th centuries till India became independent and a new set of language policies came into being. This paper traces the narrative of English on the Indian subcontinent from its genesis as a foreign and imperial tongue to its acceptance and ‘democratization’ as one amongst the many languages of India. It is emphasized that English in India has always existed in a vibrant multilingual environment and that the emergence of Indian English as a ‘world’ variety owes much to this fact. A detailed analysis of the lexicon, grammar and pragmatics of the English spoken today in urban India especially by India’s youth who comprise over 65% of India’s population is undertaken in the paper with a view to demonstrating that radical and striking shifts in attitudes toward English in India have occurred over the last few decades of economic liberalization and technological growth. Yet, the timeline created in this paper also shows that many of the paradoxes and dilemmas that attended English from its inception in India have not quite been banished. Rather, they have taken on new, acutely self-reflexive and challenging forms that will require a radical reassessment in the 21st century.
Month: July 2016
This article discusses the various ways in which it is possible to theorise about the varieties of English in the world, in particular Kachru’s (1982) concentric circle model and Schneider’s (2007) phases of development in post-colonial varieties of English and I try to fi t Singapore English into these models, although in both cases there are some difficulties. I then provide the historical background to how English was spread to South-East Asia and note that English is moving towards first-language status. The key phonological, grammatical, lexical and discourse are outlined. I end by discussing some of the key elements to remember when considering non-Anglo Englishes like Singapore English.
4 Important Tips on Protecting Your Data Against WannaCry & Ransomware Attacks
While we all believe that technology is advancing for the good of everybody, that is not the case. With all these advancements, WannaCry and ransomware attacks are becoming a scare for everyone. Many people have lost their data through these attacks and others forced to pay a huge sum of money to recover their information. But you don’t have to be bothered anymore. We are about to share with you the four essential tips that will keep your data protected against such attacks.
Do regular backups
Performing complete and regular backups of your system is one way to secure your data. This ensures that in the event you are attacked, you will have your files secured somewhere else. This does not mean having the backup on your computer, but on a hard drive or in the cloud. Even if you get attacked, you can always restore your secured data. If you haven’t been doing backups, you are at risk of losing your data in case of WannaCry or other ransomware attacks.
Avoid visiting unreliable websites
One way to put your data at risk is by visiting just any website. Not every link in your email is safe. Some emails might appear genuine when they are not, and they contain unsafe links. Once you open such links, your computer gets infected. Before you open any links ensure you check if they are genuine and they are reading to the website you expect. If the links appear suspicious, don’t open them as you could put your data at risk.
Update windows regularly
If you run Windows on your computer, ensure it is up to date. Failure to update your operating system may put your PC and data at risk. You can easily do this by setting automatic windows updates on. This ensures that your software is updated automatically. Always ensure that you are using a secure and up to date operating system. A reliable PC means secure data.
Download antivirus software
We all have the fear losing our valuable information. This may include photos that we have infested our time taking and that have great memories. When WannaCry infects your computer, the attackers threaten to delete it if you fail to pay the ransom they are asking for. Why wait for such moment? Download an antivirus from a trusted source. Though this is not a guarantee it will catch every virus; it will help protect your data.
There are times you might use a public network. Ensure you notify your system that you are using a public network which could be a potential threat to your operating system. The right way to protect your data is by securing your PC first.